external image lymph_nodes_female.jpgSiobhain, this is an excellent page. The information is is clear and to the point.
Really well done!

Bile : Is a thick digestive fluid. Produced in the liver and stored in the gallbladder. Its made up of cholestrol, bile salts and bilirubin. Bile salts help the action of lipase to be increased and also emulsifys fats into smaller dropplets to increase surface area for lipase to work apon.

Lymphatic System:

The lymphatic system is another circulary system however it doesnt rely on a pulse or heart beat and instead muscular contraction.

We all have lymph nodes in a number of places on our body like the groin, underarms, chest but the most common place people know about is their neck. These nodes are arranged in clusters as shown in the picture opposite. People often experience the swelling up of their neck when they have tonsilitus, this is because the nodes have become infected and the act of white blood cells is fighting the infection. When an immune response is stimulated by specific antigen a rush of white blood cells go to the infection to try and fight it.

The body is made of fluid meaning it contains ions, glucose, dissolved gases, resprirtory gases. These are all used for cellular processes. At high pressures this fluid is filtered through capillary walls and into surrounding tissue. The excess fluid is absorbed by lymphatic vessels, the excess fluid is called lymph. Lymph is the clear layer formed ontop of a cut. The lymphatic system has 3 main roles: Fight infections, filter lymph and filter tissue fluid back into the blood stream, all explained above.

The products of fat digestion are absorbed back into the bloodstream by tiny finger like projections found on the surface of the small intestine. These are called Villi, that increases surface area of the small intestine to make it more efficent at its job. Fatty acids and gylcerol, the products of fat digestion are absorbed by the lacteal which then transports them back into the bloodstream.

Heart disease: external image heartnice.jpg

Heart disease is one of the most common killers in the UK. Its more common in men with deaths in the UK causing 1 in 5 men to die from it. 1 in 7 women die from this disease. Heart disease is the reason fro 94'000 deaths every year!! CHD is more common as you get older, however, in some cases it can effect younger people too.

Angina one of the main causes for CHD effects two million people. Angina is pain from the heart caused by narrowed arteries.

The heart is approximatly the size of your fist and is made up of cardiac muscle which continously contracts and relaxes - An involuntery movement. The hearts job is to pump blood around the body, delivering oxygen to organs and muscle cells. Deoxygenated blood from the body comes in through the Vena Cava into the right atrium. The atria then contracts moving blood through into the right ventricle - this is called artial systole. The ventriciles then contract pushing blood in and out of the pulmonary artery. This is ventricle systole. Between the artrium and ventricle there are A.V valves. The job of these valves is to transfer blood from the atrium to ventricles and also to prevent the back flow of blood. Once the blood reaches the lungs it comes into the left side of the heart through the pulmonry vein, through the atruim, into the ventricle and out to body cells though the aorta.

However if any coronary arteries block due to fatty deposits this can cause coronary heart disease and result in the heart no recieving enugh oxygen meaning it has a total effect on the body. Atheroslerosis is a condition where the artery walls become furred up with fatty deposits. These deposits are called atheroma. This is a seroius condition for two reasons, it can restrict blood flow to organs therefore meaning less oxygen is reaching them. As a result they cant work and funtion properly. Secondaly if a atheroma ruptures it can cause a blood clot restricting blood access to an organ perhaps the heart which then causes heart attack or the brain, a stroke. Angina is caused by a build up of atheroma and parcial blockage of arteries. Total blockage caused heart attack or myocardial infarcation. Hypertension can also contrabute. Hypertension causes high blood pressure. High blood pressure is the pressure of blood in your arteries and is recorded in two numbers. The top number is systolic pressure. (The maximim pressure when the heart contracts) and the lower number is your diasytolic pressure ( The maximim pressure when the hearts relaxed) High blood pressure can be caused by being overweight, eating too much salt, drinking too much alcohol or not doing enough exersize. All this causes hardening of artery walls and eventually causes blockages and therefore oxygen cant get through arteries and too a particular muscle.

The symptoms can often go unnoticed for years but common symptoms are dizzyness, shortness of breath, fatigue, chest pains or swelling of the legs.

Heart disease can be prevented by keeping a healthy heart. Eating healthy foods, doing plenty of exersize and not smoking can all help.
However for poeple who already have heart disease can take various medicines to prevent any further heart problems occuring.
Digitalis makes the heart contract harder and is used when the heart's pumping function has been weakened; it also slows some fast heart rhythms.
Blood cholesterol-lowering agents – decrease LDL cholesterol levels in the blood.
Thrombolytic agents–also called "clot busting drugs," they are given during a heart attack to break up a blood clot in a coronary artery in order to restore blood flow
AspirinAspirin helps to lower the risk of a heart attack for those who have already had one. It also helps to keep arteries open in those who have had a previous heart bypass or other artery-opening procedure such as coronary angioplasty.

refrences - http://www.patient.co.uk/health/Angina.htm

Siobhain you're page looks fantastic and the information is both clear and concise. Your diagrams are informative and relevant. I have included some other activities/ reading for you to do during the snow closures, however, please don't hesitate to get in touch via this site if you have questions or run out of things to do.
Really well done!!

Essay Question: (5) from textbook.

Woman are on a cyclic fertility stretch that is controlled by hormones. This synchronised hormone controlled cycle is called the menstral cycle and its composed of two phases: The follicular phase and the luteal phase.

The follicular phase - The bodys endocrine gland, the piturity is stimulated to produce Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH) (1). This hormone promotes the development of a graafin follicle (1)( A structure found in the ovary.) With increased development of the graafin follicle, oestrogen is produced (1). Oestrogen is an ovarian hormone which promotes proliferation of the endometrium. (Maintains the endometrium by cell division.) (1)At high levels of oestrogen there is a increase in Lutinising Hormone (LH). Lutinising Hormone, along with FSH is a gonodotrophic hormone produced by the piturity. LH stimulates the graafin follicle to rupture and release the ovum (1). This is ovulation. Once the egg is ovulated from the ovary it makes its way to the oviduct where if sperm meets, fertilisation could occur. At this point in the oviduct, the egg is only fertile for a matter of days before disintergrating and coming away during mentration. (5)
The Luteal phase - After ovulation, the graafin follicle degenerates becomes into a corpus lutium (1). The corpus lutium secretes progesterone (1), another ovarian hormone. Progesterone is a hormone that promotes the thickening of the endometrium, making it rich in blood vessels (1). At high levels of progesterone, the inhibition of FSH and LH occurs. Decreasing the concentration of these hormones as no more follicles develop (1). This is an example of negitive feedback control. However at low concentrations of LH means the corpus lutium can not be manintained and therefore a drop in progesterone (1). This has an effect on the endometrium as it no longer can be maintined and therefore comes away as a period (1). (5)

Siobhain, an excellent essay, full marks!! Only one small error, the Graafian follicle 'becomes' the corpus luteum rather than 'degenerates into'
but other than this a fantastic essay, as usual!
Contraception :
Contraception is the intential prevention of conception by natural or artifical means. There are many different means of contraception including condoms, the pill, and using calculations of a womans fertile period. All of which i will go into greater detail later. Men are on a continual stretch of fertilisation, however, woman are on a cyclic cycle meaning they go through a whole process during the month involving a number of hormones, with a space of only a few days being fertile. external image condoms11.jpg
The method of Coitus Interruptus (withdrawal) can be used and involves the man pulling his penis out of the vagina before he ejaculates. However this is reletivly unsuccessful, due to the presense of 'dew drop' which is produced when a man is arosed. The element of not being quick enough to withdraw is also another problem.

Hormonal methods of contraception are being discovered for men which include injections and implants, however, theres not an offical means like such broatcasted. Therefore the use of condoms is probably the most effective.

Condoms: Are an effective way to reduce the risk of conception and the spread of STI's like herpes, gonorrhoea and chlymida. They are a barrier made of latex and are placed on males erect penis and collect the semen preventing it from entering the woman. You also can get female condoms -
The female condom is inserted into the vagina using the closed-end ring. The other ring creates the open end of the condom. This lines the vagina closing off the cervix to sperm. This can be used 8hours prior to intercoarse. Like the male, it should only be used once. Other advise states condoms and female condoms should not be used at the same time due to friction between the two causing break-down of latex or one slipping off, rendering them ineffective.
external image pills.jpg
The pill: Is used by 100million woman worldwide, so its obviously popular but how does it work?
Ofcoarse there are some risks however the benifits mask the reported risks of taking the pill. Before going on the pill you should consult your doctor as someones life and well-being may contrabute with conditions related with taking the pill for example, if your a smoker and take the pill theres a greater risk of developing deep vien thrombosis, Heart attacks and strokes. The pill consists of synthetic oestogen and progesterone. Due to taking the pill everyday for about three weeks increases a womans oestrogen and progesterone levels. Since no FSH (Follicle Stimulating Hormone) is produced due to progesteroexternal image 20081010165906_menstrual.gifne being produced and FSH and LH being inhibitied, the graafin follicle does not develop. The consequence of this is th follicle doesnt rupture and does not realease the egg. There are many different combinations of the pill to suit different people as all girls will react differently to a certain type. Woman need to find the pill that suits them. GP's or a family planning clinic can prescribe the pill.

Hormonal methods of contraception: Involve inplants or injections however it works similarly to the pill by altering the sequence of the menstral cycle to prevent ovulation.

Womans fertile period: When a woman ovulates her temperature will raise about 0.5oC, a very slight change however identifing when a woman ovulates can be used as a means of contraception. This temperature will mantain slightly higher during the luteal phase. A woman is only fertile for about 3-4 days then the infertile cycle continues and here is a place where a couple could have sex without getting pregnant due to the egg having degenerated.

Inconjunction with this, at high oestrogen levels the cervical mucus of a woman thin's and aids fertilisation by allowing entry of sperm into the cervix. We know that at high levels of oestragen, the piturity gland is triggered to produce Lutinsing Hormone (LH). When this peaks ovulation occurs and its here where the temperture with increase slightly. The thin of mucus and ovulation is parrell and works together to aid fertlisation.
References : http://www.netdoctor.co.uk/sex_relationships/facts/coitusinterruptus.htm

Infertility is the term to failure to concieve after continuious unprotected sex. This can occur in both males and females.
external image male.gif
Male infertility can be caused by many things;
  • Blockages in sperm ducts - Some examples of what causes this is, surgery, infection (Chlamydia etc) Also some men are born with no vas deferens, therefore sperm can't travel from the testies and out of the urethra. Blockages affect about 10% of men.
  • Sperm or genetic disorders - This involves disorders of sperm number, shape and structure. Genetic disorders include conditions involving chromosome numbers. Kilnfelters syndrome is a condition which effects only men. The lack of testie development is expressed due to low testosterone levels.
  • Testicular disease or damage - Include many factors including a bash or injury from a fight. This causes the testes to become swollen and for bleeding to occur. This can seriously effect sperm production.
  • Problems with erection or ejaculation - Erection disfunction, premature ejaculation and failure to ejaculate. This only effects 5% of couples.
  • Drugs - Alcohol can effect sperm count. Marijauna, Opiates and Anabolic steriods can all contribute to problems with hormone production.
  • Lack of sexual hormones - Under-production or over-production can both contribute to male infertility. Particularly the lack of testosterone hormone. This can be caused by problems with testicles or the hypothalumus or piturity gland, which controls testosterone production.

Treatments available;
A series of effective treatments are out there however one treatment might not work for some individuals and therefore the reason why there are so many complex solutions out there to try and resolve infertility. Some include:
Antibiotics which may treat infections affecting sperm ducts.
Surgery may correct blockages, reverse of vasectomy.
Medications could help increase sperm count and therefore increase chances of fertilisation.
Above all these, there are perhaps more complex ways of helping infertility:

IUI is a common treatment which involves the transfer of sperm into the uterus via the cervix. This can be recomended if a male has low sperm count.
IVF can also be used.
A similar method is intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) which involves injecting a single sperm into the egg.

Complex ways of helping infertility are named above but are not always guaranteed to work. So meanwhile sterile men and woman can make a natural and basic change to our livestyles to help with fertility.
  • Eat and healthy, well balanced diet.
  • Take regular exersize a few times a week.
  • Don't smoke or drink excessive amounts of alcohol.
  • Don't take drugs.
  • And try to reduce stress.

Excellent work, very informative, to the point and overall a very good read, well done!

Female reproductive problems account for about 40% of infertility cases and can be caused by a number of different things. Such things can include; external image Abnormal%20uterus.jpg

  • Abnormalies of the uterus - nfertility is a result of such severe cases of an abnormal uterus, such as fibroids. However, a normal uterus is pear shaped and is incapsulated into the pelvis. Dimensions are 7.5cms long, 5cms wide and 2.5cm deep. Usually the bottom of the uterus dips into the vagina and this 'dip' is called the cervix. A woman with abnormalities has a different structure and shape.
  • Ovarian dysfunction - Is when an ovary might not ovulate. Reasons like menopause, polycystic ovarian syndrome, tumours and cancer and sometimes there might be problems with a follicle or corpus lutium.
  • Endometriosis - causes abnormal bleeding, however, there are many linked problems that contribute towards endometriosis.
  • Scar tissue from previous surgery.
  • Sexually transmitted diseases - if untreated some STD's can cause an infection in the reproductive organs, such as pelvic inflammatory disease. (PID)
http://video.about.com/infertility/Infertility.htm < -- Video


85-90% of couples dealing with infertiltiy are usually cured by low-tech treatments such as medication or surgery. Only 3% will actually go on to use assisted reproductive technologies such as IVF. Some treatments involve the combination of fertility drugs such as clomid, hormone therapy and any of the following more complex ways of treating an infertile woman;

Intrauterine imsemination (IUI) - Whereby sperm are artifically placed into a womans uterus by the use of a cathater. This increases the number of sperm available to access a woman's egg, overall helping fertlisiation. There are risks to this such as infection and slight cramping of the uterus. However the statistics show partners have a 10-20% chance they will concieve provided the sperm count is high and the fallopian tubes of the woman are healthy.

In Vitro fertilization (IVF) - This involves the ovum to be fertilized by sperm in a fluid medium - (controlled by the prostate gland)outside the patients body. The fertilised egg is then transferred into the woman's uterus.

Gamete intrafallopian transfer (GIFT) - The procedure is similar to IVF, where eggs are collected and fertilised by sperm outside the womans body and in open surroundings. The benifit from this, is the newly concieved egg will develop in a natural enviroment.

Zygote intrafallopian transfer (ZIFT) - Again similar to GIFT however the newly fertilised egg is transferred directly into the fallopien tubes and not just the micture of eggs and sperm like in IVF. Benifits are similar however ZIFT is a much more invasive process whereby two stages are carried out not just one.

Oocyte - Egg donation.

Refrences -