Really good page Laura. Try and add the information on the Lymphatic system and hypertension to make it complete. This will be a really good revision tool, well done.

Male Infertility

Infertility is classed as the inability of a couple to concieve after trying for a baby for a year. There are many causes of infertility and it can be primary or secondary, the chances of being infertile are increased as the age of the couple increases and around 25% of couples will struggle to concieve at some point. The impact of male infetility is thought to be around 40%.

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  • Often a low sperm count can lead to infertility this can occur due to
-reduction of preoduction due to heat
-being overly sexually active
-smoking over 20 cigarettes a day
-excessive alcohol intake
  • Being stressed can also lead to infertility as well as a lowered sex drive
  • Excessive fluid surrounding the testicles known as hydrocele
  • Anotomical misdevelopments of the penis
  • Issues with the urethra or sperm ducts fuctioning wrongly
  • Retrograde ejaculation
  • Chronic infection of the prostate gland

  • Altering lifestyle choices that lead to a low sperm count
  • Artificial incememination
  • Surgery to correct anotomical issues


Female Infertility

Female infertility has many causes that can range from biological issues affecting contraception to issues caused by environmental factors. The chance of female infertiliy increases with age, a female however becomes completely infertile after she goes through the menopause and she no longer produces eggs.

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-failure to ovulate
  • Hormonal Problems
-failure to produce mature eggs, the issue in around 50% of cases of anovulation
-failure of the hypothalmus
-failure of the pituitary gland, incorrect levels of FSH and LH prevent ovulation
  • Physical issues with the fallopian tubes
  • Physical issues with the ovaries
  • Premature menopause
  • Follicle problems such as "unruptured follicle syndrome" which prevents the release of the egg despite it being fully matured

-failure of the fallopian tubes
  • Infection
  • Previous invasive surgery
  • Disease
  • Ectopic pregnancy

-other causes
  • Uterus abnormalities
  • Diet problems
  • Problems with the cervical mucus
  • Smoking, Alcohol and Drugs
  • Environmental factors -lead, radiation, etc.

  • Medication to treat hormonal issues
  • Corrective tubal surgery
  • IVF
  • Laparoscopic surgery
  • Artificial insemination

Despite the continuing development of procedures for some couples conception is physically impossible and other alternatives such as the use of surrogates or the possibility of adoption must be considered.



If a couple does not use contraception there is a 85% chance that the women will fall pregnant if both partners are fully fertile. This is why couples who wish to prevent pregnancy can opt to use one or more than one of the many contraceptive products available.

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  • The Implant, 99.9% effective
  • Sterilisation, 99.8% effective
  • Contraceptive Injection, 97% effective
  • Contraceptive Patch, 92% effective
  • Duel Birth Control Pill, 92% effective
  • IUS, 99.8% effective
  • IUD, 99.2% effective
  • Female Condom, 79% effective
  • Progesterone Only Pill, 92% effective
  • Diaphragm, 84% effective
  • Spermicide, 71% effective


  • Male Condom, 85% effective

No contraceptive method is 100% effective, a small mistake can lead to an unexpected pregnancy which can require the use of emergency contraception.

Emergency contraception
Emergency contraception


Heart Disease

Heart disease or cardiopathy is a term that can be used to describe any condition affecting the heart. It kills hundreds of thousands of people each year and recent years in america it has been seen to kill twice as many people as cancer.
Some of the common forms of heart disease are coronary heart disease, cardiomyopathy, heart failure, cardiovascular disease and inflamatory heart disease.


Due to the vast range of conditions that can be placed under the heading of heart disease there are many causes, however the main factors causing the heart to malfunction are:
  • High Blood Pressure (hypertension)
  • High Blood Cholestoral
  • Diabetes
  • Overweight, additional pressure is put on the heart
  • Smoking
  • Lack of exercise
  • Gender, men are more likely to suffer than women
  • Family History
  • Genetic Abnormalities
  • Age, 4 in 5 people that die due to heart disease are over 65

There are also factors that can contribute to the likelyhood of heart disease:
  • Stress, causes increased blood pressure
  • Sex Hormones
  • Birth Control Pills
  • Alcohol


There are also many to match the various forms of diseases, many can mean that a person may be able to lead a normal life once more although there success is not guarenteed. Drug treatments can help to treat some types causes such as to lower blood pressure. They can also be used to prevent clots, relieve angina and improve the hearts contractions. There surgery methods that can be used to alter structure or to assist the heart in beating more steadily and achieving a healthier rhythm.


A type of heart disease that affects many people and is caused by the thickening of the artery walls. This thickening is due to the build up of deposits such as cholestoral, calcium and fatty acids. This is normally refered to as plaque. This disease can only be detected in the later stages as there is no way of seeing it earlier and it only becomes obvious when symptoms begin to show. Artherosclerosis can be treated by stenting, a change of lifestyle and diet and the use of medication such as blood thinners.