Really good page so far Hannah, good use of diagrams, bullet points and I like the pink and blue font you used!

Excellent work on the Heart DIsease and Blood Pressure section of the page. Well done!


Infertility is when a couple can not get pregnant despite having regular unprotected sex. 1 in 6 couples will have difficulty conceiving.
There are 2 types of infertility;
Primary Infertility - someone who has never conceived a child before has difficulty conceiving.
Secondary Infertility - someone who has already had one or more children in the past but has difficulty
conceiving another.

external image male_anatomy_side.gif
Abnormal Semen
  • accounts for 75% of male infertility
  • low sperm count
  • decreased sperm mobility
  • affect quality and quantity of sperm if damaged
  • testicular cancer
  • infection
  • vasectomy
  • can be reversed but not always successful
Ejaculation Disorders
  • recto-ejaculation (semen injected into bladder)
  • premature ejaculation (ejaculation occurs to quickly)
  • low levels of testosterone
  • due to; tumour / use of illegal drugs / Kallmans syndrome
Medication and Drugs
  • i.e. - steroids / chemotherapy
  • reduce sperm count
  • reduces sperm mobility
  • too much can damage quality of sperm
Blockages in sperm duct
  • STI infection
  • cyst
  • infection in prostateexternal image p648029-sperm_fertilizing_egg-spl.jpg

  • to treat infection
  • treat STI
  • reverse vasectomy
  • correction of an epididymal blockage
  • fertilisation of egg occurs outside the body
Sperm donation
  • artificial insemination
  • regulate hormones
  • increase / decrease testosterone levels
  • encouraged to eat a healthy balanced diet
  • take regular exercise
  • stop smoking
  • lower alcohol consumption
Really well done Hannah!

Ovulatory Disorders
  • most common in female infertility
  • result in the highest pregnancy success rate after treatment
  • absent or infrequent periods and excessively heavy or light bleeding
external image femalerepro.gif
  • where endrometrial tissue grows outside the uterus
  • painful menstrual periods, irregular or heavy bleeding and possible repeated miscarriages
Poor Egg Quality
  • eggs that become damaged or develop chromosomal abnormalities and cannot sustain pregnancy
  • usually age related
  • egg quality significantly decreases late 30's early 40's
Poly-cystic Ovary Syndrome
  • ovaries which contain small cysts have hormone imbalances and do not ovulate regularly
  • irregular menstrual periods
  • excessive hair growth
  • acne and weight gain
Fallopian Tube Blockages
  • prevent eggs from getting to the uterus and sperm getting to the egg
  • usually cause by;
    • pelvic inflammatory disease
    • STI's such as chlamydia
    • previous sterilisation surgery
  • increases rick of ectopic pregnancy
Premature Menopause
  • usually occurs in athletic women with a long history of low body weight and extensive exercise
  • can be genetic

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Egg Donation or Surrogacy
Ovulation-simulating drugs
  • clomiphene
  • to remove abnormal tissues
  • unblock tubes
  • bring about fertilisation outside bodies of to-be parents


  • Condoms
    • placed into the vagina
  • Contraceptive pill
    • contains oestrogen and progesterone
    • prevents the ovaries from releasing an egg each month
    • thickens the mucus in the neck of the womb so it is harder for sperm to penetrate the womb and reach an egg
    • thins the lining of the womb, so there is less chance of a fertilised egg implanting into the womb and being able to grow
  • Contraceptive implants and injections
    • Slowly release progesterone
    • Implantations
      ‘Five days after’ contraceptive pill approved
      ‘Five days after’ contraceptive pill approved
      • small (4cm) thin flexible tube implanted under the skin of upper arm
      • works for up to 3 years before it needs to be replaced
      • can be removed at any time
    • Injections
      • usually given into the muscle in your bottom or upper arm
      • depo-provera is the most commonly used injection in the UK and is effective for up to 12 weeks
      • Noristerat is effective for up to 8 weeks
  • Contraceptive Patch
    • stick onto skin and releases oestrogen and progesterone into the bloodstream
    • replaced once a week
    • on 4 week no patch is worn to allow menstruation to take place
  • Diaphragms and Caps
    • placed inside vagina and prevent sperm entering cervix
    • must leave in for at least 6 hours after sex
    • needs to be used along side spermicide (a chemical the kills sperm)
  • Vaginal Ringexternal image M860302-Contraceptive_patch_377x171.jpg
    • placed inside vagina for 21days
    • ring constantly released oestrogen and progesterone
    • reduces ovulation, thickens vaginal mucus and thins lining of womb
  • Sterilisation
    • effective and permanent
    • usually involves cutting, sealing or blocking fallopian tubes
  • Emergency Pill
    • used after unprotected sex
    • can be taken up to 3-5 days after sex
    • prevents pregnancy
    • should not be used as regular method of contraception
  • Rhythm Method
    • noting changes in the consistency of cervical mucus and body temperature
    • just before ovulation, cervical mucus becomes thin/watery while body temperature rises (0.5ºC)
    • couple who want children can work out when woman is most fertile
    • not very reliableexternal image condom_pile2.jpg
  • Condoms
    • placed over penis
    • trap sperm preventing then entering the vagina preventing pregnancy
  • Sterilisation - vasectomy
    • usually permanent but can be reversed
    • sperm ducts are cut preventing sperm leaving penis
    • has no effect on sex drive

Give an account of the hormonal control of a mestrual cycle that does not involve fertilisation under the following headings
i) follicular stage (5)
ii) luteal phase (5)

During the follicular phase FSH is released from the pituitary (1) which stimulates the development and maturation of a graafian follicle (1) which then produces oestrogen (1). The build up of oestrogen brings about the repair of the endometrium (1). High levels of oestrogen cause a surge in LH (1)which has a direct effect on ovulation at about day 14 of the cycle.
The egg is then moved along the oviduct, during 3 to 4 days fertilisation may occur if the egg meets a sperm

During the lacteal- watch spelling phase (second half of cycle) LH simulates the graafian follicle to become the corpus luteum (1). This then secretes progesterone and oestrogen (1). This rise in progesterone concentration simulates further development of the endometrium (1). The endometrium becomes thick vascular and spongy ready to accept and nourish an embryo if fertilisation takes place and the embryo becomes fertilised.
Combined high levels of progesterone and oestrogen during this stage trigger an inhibitory effect on the anterior pituitary. Contractions of FSH and LH drop as a result and no new follicles develop at this time (1).
A lack of LH leads to the degeneration of the corpus luteum by about day 22 of the cycle. This is followed by a rapid drop n progesterone and oestrogen. By 28 the endometrium can no longer be maintained leading to menstruation (1).

Full marks Hannah! In part (i) it would have been better to say 'high levels of oestrogen cause a surge in LH which brings about ovulation' rather than 'has a direct effect on ovulation'
Also, watch the spelling of luteal. You typed in lacteal and as this is a completely different structure, you could have lost marks for this.


  • UK's biggest killer, around 1 in 5 men and 1 in 7 women die from the disease
  • term that describes what happens when your heart blood supply is blocked or interrupted by a build up of fatty substances in the coronary arteries

  • build up of of fatty deposits on the walls of the coronary arteries
  • fatty depsoits (called atheroma) are made up of cholesterol and other waste substances
  • build up of atheroma ont he walls og the coronary arteries makes the arteries narrower and restricts the flow of blood to the heart

  • stop smoking
  • maintaining a healthy weight
  • lower alcohol consumption
  • lower and maintain blodd pressure
  • lower and maintain cholesterol level
  • eat a healthy balenced diet

  • change life style
  • cardioversion
    • return heartbeat to normal rhythm
  • cornary angioplasty and stents
    • helps relieve blockages and prevent narrowing of passages
  • conary bypass sygery
    • blood is directed and throught a new vein bypassing away from blockage
  • heart transplant
    • used to treat serve heart failure
  • implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD)
    • used to treat people with dangerously abnormal heart rhythmes
    • inserted under collar bone
    • similar to pace maker
  • drugs
  • pacemakers
    • delay in the electrical conduction through the heart that can make the heart beat too slowly
    • your heart beat too fast which is not effectively controlled by meducation
    • you have heart failure which may cause your heart to pump out of synch
  • statins
    • drugs which lower the level of cholesterol in your blood
  • valve heart surgry
    • If one of your valves is diseased or damaged, it can affect your blood flow in two ways:
      • if the valve does not open fully it will obstruct the flow of blood. This is called valve stenosis or narrowing
      • if the valve does nto close properly it will allow bllod to leak backward. This is called valve incompetence or regurgitation or a leaky valve

  • potentially serious contition where the body's medium and large arteries become clogged up by fatty substances sich as cholesterol. these substances are called plaques or atheromas
  • Hardening and narrowing of the arteries is potentially dangerous for two reasons:
    • restricted blood flow to an organ can damage it and stop it functioning properly
    • if a plaque ruptures (bursts) it will cause a blood clot to develop at the site of the rupture.
    • the blood clot can block the blood supply to an imprortant orhan such as the heart triggering a heart attack, or the brain, triggering a stroke
  • as someones arteries naturally get harder as they get older therefore atherosclerosis tends to be more common in people over the age of 40
  • more common in men than women as sex hormones that are used in the female reproductive system (ie - oestrogen) provide prtection against the effects of atherosclerosis


  • Blood pressier is the pressure of blood in your arteries (the tubes that carry your blood from your heart to your brain and the rest of your body. you need a certain amount of pressure to get the blood around your body.
  • The pressure of blood flowing though your arteries, the pressire in your arteries will be at its highest. When you heart is relaxing it pumps again the pressure in you arteries will be at its lowest

  • Every blood pressure reading consists of 2 mumbers or levels. They are shown as one number on top of the other and measure in mmHg which means millimetres of mercury. ie - 120/80mmHg

  • The first number represent the HIGHEST LEVEL your blood pressire reaches when your heart beats and pumps blood into your arteries - your SYSTOLIC blood pressire

  • The second number represent the LOWEST LEVEL your blood pressure reaches as your heart relaxes between beats - your DIASTOLIC blood pressure


  • Your blood pressure is constantly higher than the levels above. High blood pressure is not usually something that you can feel or notice, but over time your heart may become abnormally large and beat less effectively.

  • Having high blood pressure increases your chance of having a heart attack or stroke. If left untreated it puts extra strain on your heart muscle which can lead to heart failure.

There isn’t always an explanation for the cause of high blood pressure, but these can play a part:

  • not doing enough physical activity
  • being overweight or obese
  • too much salt in your diet
  • drinking too much alcohol
  • not eating enough fruit and vegetables or,
  • having a family history of high blood pressure.


  • The lymaphatic system consists of organs, ducts and node. It transports a watery clear fluid called lymh.
  • This fluid distributes immune cells and other factors thoughout the body. it also interacts with the blood circulatory system to drain fluid from cells and tissues.
  • The lymphatic system contains immune cells called lymphoctes, which protects the body against antigen (viruses, bacteria etc) that invade the body. Its abnormal cells of this type that cause lymphoma

  • to collect and return instersitial fluid, including plasma protein to the blood and to maintain fluid balence
  • to defend the body the body against disease by producting lymphocytes
  • to absorb lipids from the intestine and transport them to the blood

  • Lymph nodes are found in clusters located in the underarms, groin neck, chest and abdomen.
  • act as lymphatic filters removing micro organisms and any other unwanted materials.
  • during infection the nodes can become infected themselves causing them to swell up
  • sight of lymphocyte and antibody production which is essential for bodies well being


  • Produced in liver
  • Stored in gall bladder
  • Aids the process of digestion of lipids in the small intestine