Well Done Danielle! Keep adding to the page using the topics that are on the home page.

Lymphatic System

Heart disease

Heart diesase can be cause by many enviromental factors such as lack of exercise, bad diet, smoking levels and obesity.

One of the major types of hear diseases is Atherosclerosis which means the hardening of the arteries and there is three diffrent types in which you can get.

The symptoms of heart disease is chest pain(angina), shortness of breath, swollen ankles, tirdness, and irregular heart beat.

You can prevent getting heart disease by doing exercise, eating five portions of fruit and veg, and if your a smoker cutting down on smoking.

Hypertension or high blood pressure is a medical condition in which the blood pressure is high, therefor the opposite of hypotension.
external image images?q=tbn:cOh5VC_XTVBqOM:
One of the main problems with a high or low blood pressure is that it hardly ever shows symptoms. This means that it usally goes unnoticed until it causes more of a serious problem such as a heart attack or a stroke. High blood pressure is related to hypertension and therefor can cause Atherosclerosis.


The injection-This contains progesterone which is gradually relesed into the bloodstream, this stops ovulation, It also thickens the mucus made by the cervix creating a mucus plug stopping the sperm getting through to the uterus to fertalise a egg. Its is more than 99% effective and you have to get the injection every 12 weeks. Although method doesnt protect against any STI.

Condoms-These cover the penis during sex and prevent the sperm entering into the womans vagina. They are 98% effective and protect against STI's

Implant- This is a small tube that is put under the skin and it contains the hormon progesterone. It is 40 mm long and 2 mm wide. Again progesterone is slowly relesed into the bloodstream which stops ovulation. This is more than 99% effective however does not protect against STI's.

Vasectomy-This is for people who have only decided that they dont want any more children, as it is a permenant and ireversably process. It is very reliable but not quite 100%
The vas deferens is cutand tied at two ends, the procedue take about 15 minutues but discomfert and brusing is there for a few days after the surgery.



Causes of Infertility in Females

There are also many diffrent types of fertility problems in females. And again many of these have treatments or medication. Here is some examples:
  • Failure to ovulate- This may be dues to hormonal imbalance caused by; failure of piturity gland to secrete any hormones, prolonger use of contraceptive pill, emotional stress ect.
Treatment for this particular problem is to take fertility drugs which stimulate the secretions of these lacking hormones or use chemical equivalent of LH extracted from placentas of fertile woman ect.

  • Blockage of Uterine tubes- This may be due to tisses growths for example cysts or tumours, infections or spasms in the tube cause by emotional stress as well
Treatment for this problem includes; Laser treatment to clear the blockage away, use antispasmodic agents to prevent the contraction of tubes ect.
  • failure of implantation- This may be due to hormonal inbalance by failure of ovaries to secreat a good amount of ovarian hormones
    Treatments for this problem is fertility drugs which allow to restore the normal cycle of synchronised events.


Higher human biology book by James Torrance.

Causes of Infertility in Males

There are many diffrent types of fertility problems for males . Many of these have treatments or medication for them which either helps to get rid of the problem all together, or makes the problem less severe. Infertility can be diaginosed in a man if he has been unsecsesful on achiving pregrancy for at least a year, without using an forms of contreception. Here is some examples of what causes infertility in men and the treatments or medication to solve it:

external image male_anatomy_side.gif

  • Obstructive problems- When the men have a blockage in the sperm carring tubes.

  • Testicular injury and disease- This can happen if the male is in a fight or doing a sport. If they take a blow to the testes this can cause bleeding in or around the testies, and may restrict the blood flow to the testies, causes a permenent damage to the manufacturing of sperm.

  • Genetic disorders- Problems with the chromosomes, this occurs to about 2-20 percent of infertile men.

  • Problems with erection and ejaculation- This is when a male has problems with being able to maintain and erection long enough for intercourse or is inable to ejaculate

Treatments or Medication :

Men can help themselfes by:

  • Eating a healthy, balanced diet.
  • Take regular exercise.
  • Trying to maintain their weight in the ideal range.
  • Not smoking.
  • Keeping alcohol consumption within recommended limits.
  • Don't use recreational drugs.
  • Trying to reduce stress.
However there is also other ways in which they can get help through treatment and medications:
  • Treatment for acute prostatitis, epididymitis or varicocele
  • Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI)
  • Surgery depending apon the problem

Good websites to go to and refrences: