Great page Connie! All topics included, really well done :-)

Connie, your page looks great and the information is to the point and informative. I also like the use of the pink and blue fonts!

Male Infertility

Male infertiliy is the failure to achieve pregnancy after sex without the use of contraception over a period of time.
Causes of Male Infertility:
  • Obstructive Problems- When the tubes which carry the sperm from the testes to end of the penis become blocked. This can be causes be several things:
- Groin surgery
- Trauma to the scrotum
- Infection
- Previous vasectomy.
  • Sperm Problems- Its common for men to have low sperm counts, but also for their sperm to have poor sperm mobilty, the shape of the sperm can also affect the abilty to fertilise an egg.
  • Genetic Disorders- There are several inherited disorders which can effect fertility:
- Klinefelter syndrome
- Cystic Fibrosis, can cause missing/damaged of tubes which carry sperm.
  • Testicular Injury- If the testes get injured during sports for example, this can cause swelling and bleeding around them/in them, which causes the blood supply to the testes to be disrupted, causing permanent damage.
  • Problems with Erection/Ejaculation- This is the cause of infertility in about 5% of couples;
-Erectile Dysfuntion, the inablity to have an erection for intercourse.
-The inability to ejaculate, or premature ejaculation.
  • General medical disorders- some medical disorders which can effect male fertility are:
-high blood pressure
-kidney disease
-Coronary artary disease

Treatments Available:
Men can make simple changes to their lifestyles which can have increase their chances of fertilisation, these include;
  • Eat heathily
  • Dont smoke/take drugs
  • Reduce stress
  • Exercise regularly

However, more complex treatments include;
  • IVF- when the males sperm, is injected dierctly into the females egg, outside of the body.
  • Differant medicines can be provided for low sperm counts.
  • Surgery can be used to correct blocked sperm ducts.
  • Antibiotics used to treat an infection.

Female Infertility
Female infertility is the inablilty to conceive, however about 70% of the causes are treatable with drugs.
Causes of Female infertility:
  • Ovulation Problems: Any problems which are caused the egg to be released from the overy when it is not mature, so makes chances of conceiving low.

  • Poor egg quality: This is more common as the mother become older. It is the eggs having chromosomal abnormalities or being damaged. These eggs cannot sustain pregnancy.
  • Oviducts Blocked: This prevents the egg travelling to the uterus, and the sperm from reaching the egg. The main causes of this are sexually trasmitted diseases, and pelvic inflammatory disease but also previous surgery. Conception rates depend on the severity of the problem.
  • Polysistic ovary syndrome: This is a hormonal inbalance which causes small cysts to be produced on the ovaries, this prevents the female from ovulating regularly. Due to the hormomal inbalance, it cuase the female to produce excess hair, gain weight and acne.
  • Endometriosis: This is one of the major causes female infertility. It involves the endometrium (the lining of the uterus, which breaks down during menstuation) growing outside of the uterus. It causes painful periods, irregular and heavy bleeding, it also causes repeated miscarriages.
  • Other causes involve; Thyroid problems, Scar tissues form previous surgery and sexually tramsmitted diseases.
Treatments Available
There are several drug treatments available for a female to take, to overcome infertility problems, however there are other methods which are available, these include:
  • IUI- When a sample of sperm is inserted directly into the uterus to achieve fertilisation and pregnancy
  • IVF- The process used to conceive a child, outside of the body, once the egg had been fertilised by the sperm it is inserted into the uterus of the female, in the hope implantation takes place.
  • Laparoscopic surgery- Which removes endometrium tissue which would unblock oviducts, to aid frtilisation.
  • Egg donation
Essay Question- Textbook;
Many Hormones are involved in the female menstural cycle, the cycle is split into two main stages; the follicular stage and the luteal stage.
i) Follicular Stage- During the Follicular stage the Pituitory hormone, folicle stimulating hormone (1), FSH, stimulates the development of the Graafain folicle within the ovary and causes it to mature (1) . This folicle contains an egg, the product of the process meiosis. The Graafain folicle produces, the ovarian hormone, oestrogen (1). Oestrogen brings about the repair of the lining if the uterus, the endometruim (1), it also causes an increase in the pituitory hormone, the luteinising hormone (1), LH. High levels of LH cause ovulation to take place, the ovum is realsed from the ovary and begins to make its way along the oviduct (1). (5)
ii) Luteal Stage- After ovulation, the luteinising hormone, LH, stimulates the follicle to develop onto a corpus luteum (1). The corpus luteum produces the other ovarian hormone, Progesterone (1). Progesterone inhibits the hormones FSH and LH which prevents any new follicles from being developed (1). As levels of LH fall, it causes the corpus luteum to degenerate (1). As the corpus luteum is degenerating, it can no longer produce progesterone, when the levels of this ovarian hormone drop, there is no maintainance of the endometruim, which causes menstruation to take place (1)

EXCELLENT! Full marks Connie! Well done :-)

Contraception is the use of several differant devices and/or drugs to prevent a pregnancy. Contraception helps couples plan for a baby, it can also protect against sexually transmitted infections (STI's). Examples of contrac
eption are include:

The Pill- This is a comibination of the two female ovarian hromones, oestrogen and progesterone, the prevent an egg form being released from ovary. This is because the sceretion of the gonadotrophic hormones by the pituitory gland, as there is no FSH, it means there can be no follicle maturation, so no ovulation. The pill also makes the endometruim thinner. Almost 100% effective.
Condoms- There are male and female condoms;
Male condoms are latex barriers which prevents pregnancy by stopping sperm from entering the vagina. It should be placed over the penis before sexual intercourse begins. As well as preventing pregnancy, they are also useful in helping protect from STI's.
Female condoms are made of polyurethane. The female condom has a flexible ring at each end - one secures behind the pubic bone to hold the condom in place, while the other ring stays outside the vagina.
Vasectomy- This is a simple operation for a male, which prevents sperm entering the semen, it is a permanent form of contraception. This is when the sperm ducts are cut, tp prevent the sperm from reaching the end of the penis and entering the vagina.
Female Sterilisation- preventing the woman from becoming pregnant through various different operations in which the Fallopian tubes are blocked or cut through, making it very difficult for eggs to reach the womb. A blocking device may be fitted into the oviducts.
Contraceptive coils (IUDs)- They are T-shapes which are made of copper, plastics and often a small amount of silver inside, they have 2 threads which are a short distance for the vagina which
are used to remoe the device. They are placed in the womb, and prevent the sperm going into the oviducts, they also increase the mucus produced to create a stronger barrier for the sperm and they also affect the endometruim, making it less likely for an egg to become inplanted.

Fertility Awareness- This is the form of natural Family planning, it involes the understanding of the menstrual cycle, to know when the female is most/ least fertily. Its done through monitering of things such as, temperature, which increases after ovualation, mucus which increases in viscosity under progesterone, which show infertile phase.

Heart Disease
Heart disease or Coronary heart disease (CHD) is the term used to describe any condition which effects the function of the heart. One person dies every three minutes from CHD is Britain. There are several types of heart disease, which include:
  • Atherosclerosis- In the body, there are many arteries which pump oxygenated blood around the body, these consist of a thick muscular wall with a clear space to allow the blood to travel through (lumen). Atherosclerosis is a condition which causes a formation of a fatty plague (atheromus) with the addition of calcuim, these become hard and potentially block arteries preventing the blood reaching all parts of the body and can cause a heart attack.
  • Angina- This is a condition which cause severe chest pains in the centre of the chest, it can be brought on by; stress, excercise, extreme cold, or a heacy meal. People who experience this often feel as if they are suffering from a heart attack and this is what it is treated as in hospital.
  • Myocardial infraction- Also known as a heart attack, this is the blockage of blood vessels so that oxygen fails to reach heart muscles, if the cornary artery gets blocked this causes a heart attack. It causes the death of part of the cardiac (heart) muscles. Heart attacks are usually caused by Atherosclerosis.
  • Coronary Thrombosis- This is the condition where by one of the coronary blood vessels surrounding the heart becomes blocked by a blood clot, therefore, depriving the heart of a sufficent supply of oxygen and eventually a heart attack.
Heart disease can be detected in several ways; angiogram, dye plus, cardiac blood tests and x-rays.
Risk Factors:
  • Smoking
  • lack of exercise
  • stress
  • being overweight
  • high fat diet
  • diebetes
  • high blood pressure
  • high cholesterol levels
  • drug abuse
  • alchol.
  • Coronary by-pass surgery
  • drug treatment
  • heart transplants
  • pacemakers.
High Blood Pressure:
Blood pressure is the pressure of the blood in the arteries, it is measured in millimetres of mercury (mmHG). High blood pressure is one of the main risk factors which increase the risk of heart disease or a stroke. Blood pressure over 160/100 mmHG is considered as high. The first number or reading is that of systolic pressure (pressure in arteries when heart contracts), the lower number is the diastolic pressure (pressure in arteries when rests in between each beat). Too much pressure puts a strain on the arteries.
Hypertension occurs when blood is forced through the arteries at an increased pressure. Hypertension causes sleepiness, headaces, confusion and coma.
High blood pressure leads to;
  • atherosclerosis
  • stoke
  • heart attact/failure
  • kidney failure
  • eye damage

The Lymphatic System
The lymphatic system is a type of circulatory system, which has three main roles;
  • Drains tissue fluid back into the blood stream.
  • filters lymph.
  • fights infection.
As our bodies contain fluid,they are able to contain disolved substances eg, glucose, gases and proteins which are useful for our cells to function. This liquid is known as tissue fluid, at high pressures this tissue fluid filters through thin capillery walls and into the surrounding tissues. Any excess fluid is absorbed by lymphatic vessels, the excess is known as Lymph. It is transported around the body by muscle contractions, it returns into blood stream via lymphatic ducts.
In the small intestine, the villi contain a lymphatic vessel, called the lacteal which absorbes lipids, which indirectly enter the blood.
Lymph Nodes;
Found in; groin, underarms, chest, abdomen and neck. They act as filters for Lymph, which remove unwanted materials, bacteria etc removed with macrophages. Ininfection node sbecome infected and swell. They are the site of antibody production.
Bile is is a digestive juice which contains no enzymes, instead bile salts (acids) which help our bodies emulsify (break into small droplets) fats. Bile is produced in the liver and stired in the gall bladder. Bile salts break donw fats into smaller droplets to increase the surface area, for lipease action. Another important function- contains watse products of heamoglobin,known as bilirubin.