Callum, what you've written here is really good. Did you delete your page on male infertility? I'm going to keep updating this site and the Higher Human Biology GLOW page so please keep checking so that we don't fall behind in classwork.

Well done, Mrs SSR

Female Infertility

What is Infertility?
  • Infertility (or Sterility) is the state of being unable to produce offspring.
  • In female terms this is the inability to conceive.
  • Infertility is split into two sections;
Primary Infertility - Where couples have failed to conceive completely (40% of cases)
Secondary Infertility - Where couples have previously conceived but now cannot (60% of cases)

Causes Of Female Infertility:
  • Hormonal Problems - The most common cause of "anovulation". The three main factors are:
- Failure to produce mature eggs.
- Malfunction of the Hypothalamus.
- Malfunction of the Pituitary Gland
  • Scarred Ovaries - Could be caused by surgery or infection brought on by recent surgery.
  • Premature Menopause - Not completely understood why this is the case, can be known to occur in very athletic women who have a history of low body weight and frequent exercise.
  • Follicle Problems- " Although currently unexplained, "unruptured follicle syndrome" occurs in women who produce a normal follicle, with an egg
    inside of it, every month yet the follicle fails to rupture. The egg, therefore, remains inside the ovary and proper ovulation
    does not occur."
  • Infection of Fallopian Tubes
  • Abdominal Diseases
  • Previous surgeries of relevant areas of the body (i.e. fallopian tubes, Ovaries)
  • Behavioral issues such as drinking, smoking, drugs and poor diet/exercise routines have been shown to influence a woman's fertility.


Heart Disease

Cardiopathy, or as it is more commonly known, Heart Disease, is an umbrella term for a variety of diseases which affect the heart. It is the leading cause if death in America, with 25.4% of all related deaths, and also in England, Canada and Wales.
Heart Failure, Cardiovascular Disease and Coronary Heart Disease are a few of the most common issues associated with the heart.

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A particularly gruesome picture of a heart, which has been stained with Movats Stain, which shows Fibrosis - "The formation of excess fibrous connective tissue in an organ or tissue in a reparative or reactive process"(yellow), and Cardia Amyloidosis (Brown).

Causes of Heart Disease

There are a number of different factors which can affect the heart and cause problems. Due to there being so many conditions which affect the heart,such as Coronary Heart Disease, there are many causing factors.
Such factors which induce Coronary Heart include:
  • Smoking
  • Having high blood pressure
  • Having a high blood cholesterol level
  • Having Diabetes
  • Having a low level of exercise
  • Being obese or overweight
  • Having a family history of CHD: The risk is increased if you have a male relative with CHD under 55 or a female relative under 65

Treatment of Heart Conditions

In the event of a heart attack, there are several treatments available.
  • Often, if admitted to hospital with a heart attack, the patient will be injected with a thrombolytic which dissolves clots which may be present in the heart. Recovery is greatly aided if the clots are removed and it decreases the risk of having another heart attack from that same cause. The thrombolytic is not a permanent "anti-clot" drug, it just tackles with the problem at hand.
  • Surgery can often be another necessary treatment, some patients may be admitted straightaway for what is called an Immediate Angioplasty. An Angioplasty involves widening your artery by inflating a balloon in the narrowed coronary artery. A wire mesh tube called a stent is sometimes inserted to hold it open.
  • A Coronary Artery Bypass Graft (CABG) is when the blood is redirected around the affected artery by using a replacement section of a blood vessel (a graft), which is usually taken from a leg vein or by diverting another artery in the chest wall (the internal mammary artery).
  • There are a range of rehabilitation programmes which usualy include various exercise regimes, advice on changing the persons current lifestyle and information on relaxation.
  • After a Heart Attack, a patient may be required to take regular medication over a long period of time to reduce the risk of further Heart Attacks.

Source List:

(Unsure why the Male infertility post has disappeared, I didn't try to delete it but i suffered problems when i was attempting the Female infertility work and it seemed to delete the work i had done then. Hopefully it will be alright now)