Female infertility: Causes and Treatment


Causes


Fertility can be affected by age, weight or if you are a smoker.

Age can affect fertility becuse the older you get, the less likely you are to concieve. A woman's fertility starts to decline after 27 and drops faster after 35. Age also affects infertility as the older a woman gets, it gets harder for the ovaries to release eggs and the health of the eggs is lower. Another way that age can affect fertility is as time goes on, a woman will have less eggs in her ovaries to release.

Smoking can affect a woman's fertility because it is harmful to the ovaries. The more a woman smokes, the less chance there is of her getting pregnant. Chemicals found in cigarettes such as nicotine, interfere with the body's ability to produce oestrogen and also creates a higher risk of the eggs having abnormalities. Smokers are 60% more likely to be infertile than non-smokers.

If a woman in under-weight or over-weight her chances of conception are lowered. The body's fat cells produce oestrogen and if a woman is underweight and therefore has a lack of fat cells, less oestrogen will be produced resulting in irregular or non-existent menstrual cycles. If a woman has too many fat cells it leads to high levels of production of androgen, which tricks the body into thinking it is on birth control.

Treatment

Fertility drugs are the most common type of treatment for female infertility. These work by tricking the body into producing eggs. Clomiphene has been used as a fertility drug for over quarter of a century. It works by increasing hormone production, particularly FSH production in the pituitary gland. This starts up ovulation, increasing a woman's chance of conception.

IVF is another form of treatment to increase fertility. It works by making it easier for sperm and egg to meet by re-enacting the events of fertilisation in a petri dish. The embryo is then planted into the woman's uterus. IVF used to only be used on women with absent or damaged oviducts but is now used as a treatment to most kinds of infertility.

Sources

http://www.infertilityweb.com/Age_infertility.html
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Female_infertility
http://www.healthscout.com/ency/68/437/main.html#TreatmentofFemaleInfertility

Contraception



Male contraception
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Vasectomy: This is a small surgical procedure in which the 'vasa defrentia' the vessel that carries sperm during ejaculation, are tied to stop sperm from leaving the penis during ejaculation. Even though this prevents the woman getting pregnant it does not protect against STI's.
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 width="263" height="189"]]
Female Contraception

The Pill: The Pill contains oestrogen and progestogen. It works by stopping ovulation meaning an egg is not released every month as normal and if a woman doesn't ovulate, she doesn't get pregnant. It also thickens the secretions around the cervix making it harder for sperm to get through and make the womb lining thinner, making it harder for an egg to attach. The Pill does not protect against STI's.
external image images?q=tbn:ANd9GcRxrsAsurZLCS6Cz8nuVRTkewqXvbPtc8WHdB1MmnS2uMRlE1_p

The Implant: This is a small tube placed under the skin of the upper arm. It contains the hormone, progestogen. It works by releasing progestogen into the bloodstream at a steady rate, stopping ovulation. It also creates a mucus plug in the cervix and makes the uterus wall thinner. Like The Pill, it only protects against pregnancy.

The Coil: The Coil is also known as an IUD. The Coil is a T-shaped device made of plastic and copper which is placed inside the womb. They work by preventing sperm from entering the womb, creating a mucus barrier to stop sperm getting through and make the womb lining thinner, making it less likely for an egg to attach. They are 98% effective against pregnancy but don't protect against STI's.
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